Motives for Smoking: Who Smokes and Why? How Personality and Motivational Variables Influence Smoking Behaviours - Sara Lynn Prouty (2012)

Many smokers express a desire to quit but have difficulty doing so even with cessation aides. In order to understand why some smokers have difficulty quitting, it is important to understand why they smoke. The Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM; Piper et al., 2004) proposes thirteen different motives for smoking. These motives were compared with four personality variables consistently demonstrated to be correlated with substance use; anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik et al., 2009) was used to assess these personality variables. Motives for smoking were also assessed with the Reasons for Smoking Scale (RSS; Russel, Peto, & Patel, 1974) and personality variables were corroborated with well-established personality measures, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Taylor, & Cox, 1998), the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD; Radloff, 1977), the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V; Zuckerman, 1994), and the Impulsivity, Venturesomeness, and Empathy Inventory (IV-I7; Eynseck & Eynseck, 1978). It was found that sex was related to weight control motives, anxiety sensitivity scores, and dependence. Anxiety sensitivity scores predicted cognitive enhancement and negative reinforcement motives. CESD scores predicted negative affect and negative reinforcement motives. Sensation seeking scores predicted behavioural choice-melioration and negative affect motives, and impulsivity scores predicted behavioural choice-melioration and loss of control motives.